HIV/AIDSRussia and Ukraine are said to have the highest growth rates of HIV infection in the world. In late July 2014, the U.S. accused Russia of violating the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, an agreement between the two countries banning medium range missiles. Putin announced in October that he would head the list of candidates on the United Russia ticket, the country's leading political party. And we call on the Syrian leadership to not only agree to setting the chemical weapons storage sites under international control, but also to their subsequent destruction." With his complete control of a massive territory, the backing of the Orthodox Church, and his eventual marriage to the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor, Ivan III would declare Muscovy the "third Rome" after Rome and Constantinople. Despite recent growth, the poorly developed banking system, along with contradictory regulations across banking, bond, and equity markets, still makes it difficult for entrepreneurs to raise capital as well as to permit capital transfer from a capital-rich sector such as energy to capital-poor sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing and to diversify risk. One hundred countries voted in favor, 11 voted against, and 58 abstained. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. Despite the controversies and terror threats, the Sochi Games were incident free and considered a success. Corresponding U.S. imports from Russia were $19.8 billion, up 29%. He won enactment of liberal economic reforms that rescued a faltering economy and stopped a spiral of hyperinflation. Stalin assumed the prime ministership on May 6, 1941. Government pressure continued to weaken freedom of expression and the independence and freedom of some media, particularly major national television networks and regional electronic media outlets. )International Country Code: 7, Internet Country Code: .ruInternet Users: 108,772,470, 76.4% (2016 est.). Nonetheless, it clearly sent Putin a message. The high growth rate of AIDS cases, if unchecked, will have negative economic consequences. The sanctions took a toll on Russia's economy. The names of Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Gogal, Repin, and Tchaikovsky became known to the world. The move heightened tensions between Russia and the West. Women in Equatorial Guinea are highly vulnerable to sex trafficking. It will be the first time Russia or the former Soviet Union hosts the Winter Games. Russia led the medal count with 33, following by the United States with 28, and Norway with 26. Two female suicide bombers, acting just minutes apart, detonated bombs in two Moscow subways stations, killing at least 39 people in March 2010. President Obama called the move a "breach of international law.". But from then on, power had effectively shifted from Gorbachev to Yeltsin and away from centralized power to greater power for the individual Soviet republics. Eleven days later, the U.S.S.R. was formally dissolved. Russia's efforts to transform its Soviet-legacy military into a smaller, lighter and more mobile force continue to be hampered by an ossified military leadership, discipline problems and human rights violations, limited funding and demographics. The president nominates the highest state officials, including the prime minister, who must be approved by the Duma. Infoplease is part of the FEN Learning family of educational and reference sites for parents, teachers and students. I define human The Dec. 2011 parliamentary elections sparked protests, mainly from middle-class Russians. He was also blamed for the ideological break with China after 1963. These reforms help make the Russian judicial system more compatible with its Western counterparts and are seen by most as an accomplishment in human rights. The political entity known as Kievan Rus was established in Kiev in 962 and lasted until the 12th century. Inspired by the protests against Putin, about 200 young Muscovites ran as independent candidates in municipal March 2012 elections. The NATO-Russia Founding Act in 1997 and the NATO-Russia Council superseded that in 2002. Problems with both discipline and brutal hazing are common as well. In 1611, after five years of conflict, merchants in the city of Nizhny Novgorod began organizing a revolt. The exact details are a bit unclear due to a general lack of reliable written sources. The term Stalinism has become defined as an inhumane, draconian socialism. Although still small by international standards, the Russian banking sector is growing fast and is becoming a larger source of investment funds. After 16 hours of negotiations, the parties agreed to a cease-fire and to end the war in eastern Ukraine. The proposed U.N. sanctions were intended to push Syria into putting a peace plan into action and ending its 17-month-old conflict. Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, age 24, and Maria Alyokhina, age 25, would be released, in part, because they are both mothers to young children. Just hours before he was gunned down, Yushenkov had officially registered his new political party, Liberal Russia. Rapidly becoming one of the richest countries in the world, China still continues to be a source, transit and destination country for sex trafficking. The Romanovs would be the ruling family for the entire lifespan of the Empire—to ensure that fact, Michael Romanov executed the surviving relatives of the Polish-appointed tsars. The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty because of the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet troops on Dec. 27, 1979. It was the first time the Syrian government acknowledged it had chemical weapons. Business has put pressure on the government to reduce value added taxes (VAT) on oil and gas, but the government has postponed this discussion. Armed and wired with explosives, the rebels demanded that the Russian government end the war in Chechnya. The opening ceremony was mostly glitch free, although one of the five floating Olympic rings failed to open. At least one of the two pilots was killed. Khrushchev formalized the eastern European system into a Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon) and a Warsaw Pact Treaty Organization as a counterweight to NATO. Ramzan Kadyrov and forces loyal to him have been linked to human-rights abuses in the troubled region. The Russian Federation maintains an embassy at 2650 Wisconsin Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20007 (tel. With a combined $2.7 trillion gross domestic product between the three countries, the union has promise. On Nov. 10, 1982, Leonid Brezhnev died. Revolutionary strikes, following Russia's defeat in the war with Japan, forced Nicholas II (1894–1917) to grant a representative national body (Duma), elected by narrowly limited suffrage. The constitution guarantees citizens the right to choose their place of residence and to travel abroad. Gorbachev resigned as Soviet President on December 25, 1991. Medvedev said that if elected, he would appoint Putin as prime minister. [7] (4232) 30-00-93; fax: [7](4232) 30-00-92).In Yekaterinburg, the U.S. Commercial Office is located at Ulitsa Gogolya 15 (tel. Alexander Litvinenko, a former KGB agent who has been critical of the Kremlin, died from poisoning by a radioactive substance in November 2006. He established much warmer relations with the West, ended the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, and announced that the Warsaw Pact countries were free to pursue their own political agendas. His introduction of European customs generated nationalistic resentments in society and spawned the philosophical rivalry between "Westernizers" and nationalistic "Slavophiles" that remains a key dynamic of current Russian social and political thought. Just three months later, however, Yeltsin ousted Stepashin and replaced him with Vladimir Putin on Aug. 9, 1999, announcing that in addition to serving as prime minister, the former KGB agent was his choice as a successor in the 2000 presidential election. The nation's writers, artists, musicians, and filmmakers are studied in universities around the world. The dominant form of trafficking is forced labor but sexual exploitation and begging is also pronounced. Russia inherited most of the defense industrial base of the Soviet Union, so armaments remain an important export category for Russia. I ask how we can explain variation in the degree to which countries serve as sources of supply to the international human trafficking market over time. This is the result of the Soviet legacy and military thinking that has changed little since the Cold War. However, China was on its way to being the world's biggest gas user by 2035. ), Note: A majority of Russians are non-practicing or are not members of any religion, largely as a result of suppression of religion in the Soviet Union. This law was used to shut down an NGO for the first time in January 2007 on the basis of extremism charges; however, most foreign NGOs have successfully re-registered. Over the past several years Russia has increased its international profile, played an increasing role in regional issues, and been more assertive in dealing with its neighbors. The people we consider "ethnic Russians" today are the country's Slavs. On April 17, 2014, in Geneva, representatives from the U.S., Russia, Ukraine, and the European Union reached an agreement intended to de-escalate the tension in eastern Ukraine. Alexander II (1855-1881), a relatively liberal tsar, emancipated the serfs. In June 2010, the FBI announced it had infiltrated a Russian spy ring that had agents operating undercover in several cities in the United States. Both explosions came just six weeks before the Winter Olympics were being held in Sochi, 400 miles away from Volgograd. Initially allied to Nazi Germany, which resulted in significant territorial additions on its western border, the U.S.S.R. was attacked by the Axis on June 22, 1941. An even greater victory occurred in July 2006, when Russia announced the killing of Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev, responsible for the horrific Beslan terrorist attack. The law is complex, with many ambiguous and contradictory provisions. Construction was the fastest growing sector of the economy, expanding by 14% in 2006. In the aftermath of the horrific attack, Putin announced that he would radically restructure the government to fight terrorism more effectively. Brezhnev died in 1982 and was succeeded by Yuriy Andropov (1982-84) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984-85). He routinely passed measures to curtail the influence of landowners and the clergy. Through the 1300s and heading into the 1400s, Novgorod became a focal point for regional rivals like the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the rapidly growing Grand Duchy of Moscow (Muscovy). In Aug. 2000 the Russian government was severely criticized for its handling of the Kursk disaster, a nuclear submarine accident that left 118 sailors dead. Moreover, military officials complain that new recruit cohorts are plagued by increasing incidences of poor education, communicable diseases and criminality. In July 2012, the Investigative Committee began criminal cases against Aleksei Navalny, an anticorruption blogger, and Gennady Gudkov, a lawmaker. Alexander I (1801-1825) began his reign as a reformer, but after defeating Napoleon's 1812 attempt to conquer Russia, he became much more conservative and rolled back many of his early reforms. A fact sheet on FY 2006 U.S. Assistance to Russia can be found at Combined with its allies, United Russia commands a two-thirds majority. Commercial LawRussia has a body of conflicting, overlapping and rapidly changing laws, decrees and regulations, which has resulted in an ad hoc and unpredictable approach to doing business. Putin was reelected president in March 2004, with 70% of the vote. The Kremlin exercises tight control over ostensibly private companies. Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or the regular toll line 1-202-501-4444 for callers outside the U.S. and Canada. The reforms have reintroduced jury trials in certain criminal cases and created a more adversarial system of criminal trials that protect the rights of defendants more adequately. This would all come to an end with Yaroslav's death in 1054, as regional powers began to rise up in opposition. A day before the crash, the U.S. imposed further sanctions on Russia in response to Putin's refusal to stop arming the separatists. Population Change: Growth rate: -0.08%; 11 births/1,000 population, 13.5 deaths/1,000 population, 1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population; infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est. Tax enforcement of disputes, particularly following the Yukos case, continues to be uneven and unpredictable. Peter created Western-style military forces, subordinated the Russian Orthodox Church hierarchy to the tsar, reformed the entire governmental structure, and established the beginnings of a Western-style education system. Russia and Ukraine blamed each other for the disruption to Europe's energy supply. By most accounts, their attempts to collect policy information were largely ineffective and clumsy, and any material they managed to gather was readily available on the Internet. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, traffic injuries, suicide, alcohol poisoning, and violence are major causes of death. Promoting Cooperation among Source, Transit and Destination Countries in Response to Human Trafficking. Next elections for the Duma occur in December 2007, and for President in March 2008. )Employment by Occupation: Agriculture: 9.4%, Industry: 27.6%, Services: 63% (2016 est.) Alexander II (1855–1881) pushed Russia's borders to the Pacific and into central Asia. Instead, the crew landed in Istanbul. On June 8, 2012, Putin signed a law imposing a huge fine on organizers of protests as well as people who take part in them. When projections are made which allow for people in high-risk groups who have not been tested for the disease, estimates of the actual number of HIV-infected persons are approximately 3 million. A dispute over debts and pricing of gas supplies between Russia and Ukraine led Gazprom, the major Russian gas supplier, to halt its gas exports to Europe via Ukraine for two weeks in January 2009, affecting at least ten EU countries. The basis of information upon which it is built is insufficient.". Human rights groups have criticized Russian officials concerning cases of Chechens disappearing while in custody. In contrast, public sector services--education, health care, and public administration--lagged behind with only 2-4% growth in 2006. Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but heavy restrictions were imposed on the emancipated class. A brief war with Poland in 1920 resulted in Russian defeat. Ukrainian, European, and American officials said the plane was shot down by a Russian-made surface-to-air missile, citing satellite images. Human Rights Russia's human rights record remains uneven and has worsened in some areas in recent years. • Nigeria remains a source, transit and destination country when it comes to human trafficking. If you have difficulties while acquiring your Transit visa, you may want to apply for a Tourist visa. Ukraine is an anciently young country, considered to be the motherland of Russia, going back to nearly 900 AD, but only becoming its own modern country not even three decades ago. Many of these items date back from before the founding of "Russia," and many originate from Russia's diverse (and widespread) ethnic groups. Although the available manpower (males 15-49) for the Russian Armed Forces was projected at 35.2 million in 2005, only approximately 11% of eligible males do military service. The party officially self-identifies as a Russian Conservative party, but the ideological meaning is unclear except in its opposition to the rival Communist Party. We use the terms such as very low, low, medium, high, and very high to describe the source, transit and destination designations of countries. The Slavic peoples of Russia weren't especially organized in this time period, however. On March 15th, Qatari officials announced that it would ban inbound flights. United Russia, the party led by Putin, came out on top in the elections, receiving nearly 50 percent of the vote, but they lost 77 seats. Both the U.S. and European officials responded with a heavy dose of skepticism that Putin would follow through. On Aug. 29, 1991, an attempted coup d'état against Gorbachev was orchestrated by a group of hard-liners. Consequently, Byzantine culture predominated, as is evident in much of Russia's architectural, musical, and artistic heritage. Government forces stormed the theater the next day, after releasing a gas into the theater that killed not only all the rebels but more than 100 hostages. PopulationRussia's population of 142.9 million (2006) is falling. Senior Russian leaders continue to emphasize a reliance on a large strategic nuclear force capable of deterring a massive nuclear attack. Russia is one of few countries with a declining population (although birth rates in many developed countries have dropped below the long-term population replacement). Russia's WTO accession process is also helping to bring the country's legal and regulatory regime in line with internationally accepted practices. After 13 months in office, Chernenko died on March 10, 1985. The following day, while Putin officially took office, the protests continued and police arrested 120 people. Following a number of terrorist incidents blamed on Chechen separatists, the Russian government launched a new military campaign into Chechnya. Not sure about the geography of the middle east? Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev, served as Communist Party leader until he was ousted in 1964. There has been an increased emphasis on practical training, and the government is introducing bills to improve the organization of the military. Both sides agreed to end the violence and intolerance, with anti-Semitism being singled out. President Putin responded by saying that Snowden could stay in Russia only if he ceased "his work aimed at inflicting damage on our American partners." President Putin vowed to double security in all of Russia's railway stations and airports. Russia acquiesced (despite misgivings) in enlargement of NATO by members first of the former Warsaw Pact and most recently by the Baltic states that had been forcibly integrated into the Soviet Union. The popular militia succeeded in liberating Moscow and driving out the occupying troops. Yeltsin's defiant actions during the coup—he barricaded himself in the Russian parliament and called for national strikes—resulted in Gorbachev's reinstatement. Russian authorities began an investigation into all six deaths. After signing the treaty, Putin gave a speech that both defended his move, denounced internationally as a land grab, and lashed out at the West. Further Electronic InformationDepartment of State Web Site. International Disputes: Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Russia remains involved in the conflict in eastern Ukraine while also occupying Ukraine’s territory of Crimea, Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission, Human Trafficking: Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; with millions of foreign workers, forced labor is Russia’s predominant human trafficking problem and sometimes involves organized crime syndicates; workers from Russia, other European countries, Central Asia, and East and Southeast Asia, including North Korea and Vietnam, are subjected to forced labor in the construction, manufacturing, agricultural, textile, grocery store, maritime, and domestic service industries, as well as in forced begging, waste sorting, and street sweeping; women and children from Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central Asia are subject to sex trafficking in Russia; Russian women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in Northeast Asia, Europe, Central Asia, Africa, the US, and the Middle East, Tier Rating: Tier 3 - Russia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making a significant effort to do so; prosecutions of trafficking offenders remained low in comparison to the scope of Russia’s trafficking problem; the government did not develop or employ a formal system for identifying trafficking victims or referring them to protective services, although authorities reportedly assisted a limited number of victims on an ad hoc basis; foreign victims, the largest group in Russia, were not entitled to state-provided rehabilitative services and were routinely detained and deported; the government has not reported investigating reports of slave-like conditions among North Korean workers in Russia; authorities have made no effort to reduce the demand for forced labor or to develop public awareness of forced labor or sex trafficking (2015), Illicit Drugs: Limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates. 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