This represents an installed pile (that assumes no bending so that soil stresses and depth xi are uniformly distributed) and a thin slice of soil at some depth xi (Fig. Figure. The undrained shear strength increases more or less linearly with depth and shows significantly higher values for an over-consolidated as for a normally consolidated clay. Ground shaking from earthquakes has been attributed to the triggering of landslides around the world. Russell (1977) is taking up the ongoing debate about if root penetration may be impeded by an increased soil strength or if it is only a result of poor aeration. In terms of engineering properties of soil, it depends on cohesion, soil internal angle of friction, soil metal friction, and adhesion. If there is no definite peak in the curve, then stress corresponding to 20% strain is arbitrarily taken as the failure condition. Advantages and Disadvantage of Shear Box Test: (i) The test is simple and fast for granular soils. Key Factors Influencing Deepwater Axial Bending and Loading. 4). Un-drained shear strength is computed and used for those field problems, where the change in the total stress is immediately compensated by a change in the pore water pressure. Classification of Clay Sensitivity Stv after different Sources. Moreover,the water content can be increased for better workability, but this affects the strength. 6. This condition was obtained by using one normally consolidated and one over-consolidated sample. Factors controlling shear strength of soils. Heilman (1981) found a pore space of 30%–27% to be restricting for Douglas-fir seedling root growth. 6); transformation of slides into debris flows in frontal zone; associated clastic injections (core and outcrop) (Fig. Soils having angular particles have higher (t)-value then those having rounded particles. The shear box can be split in two half horizontally. Fig. Shear strength of slope material is a fundamental property that governs the stability of a hillslope. As the undrained shear strength of water-saturated soils shows a clear dependence on the consistency limits, the following relationship for normally consolidated clay soils can be made (Engel, 2002 cited in Prinz and Strauß, 2006): with σv the effective overburden pressure and Ip the plasticity index. 7. (A) Yield of spring barley under normal Swedish weather conditions as a function of the degree of compactness (Y and D) of the plow layer. If direct shear test is to be performed under UU condition then drainage is prevented both during application of normal as well as shear stress. Earthquakes increase stress, increase temporary pore water pressures, and decrease soil strength. 1. Outcrop photograph showing sheet-like geometry of an ancient sandy submarine slide (1000 m long and 50 m thick) encased in deep-water mudstone facies. By dividing the normal load and the maximum applied shearing force with the cross-sectional area of the specimen at the shear plane gives respectively the normal stress and shears tress at failure of the sample. Study of Factors Affecting the Compressive Strength of Sandy Soil Stabilized with Polymer. Table 9.9. Definition of p & y as related to the response of an installed pipe to lateral loading. Soil composition, or the amount and types of minerals in any soil, is determined by multiple factors. The deformation is continued till the sample fails. Annual ploughing is assumed. 8.3B and C). Although almost more than 50 techniques and methods are commonly used in ground improvement practice, they can collectively be classified in five major categories. As stated in Chapter 2, these five categories of soil improvement methods include the following: A detailed explanation of approaches and recent developments can be found for ground improvement or soil stabilization as presented by Hausmann (1990), FHWA (2001), and Han (2015). Figure 2.5. The specimen is placed between rigid non-porous end caps or porous discs depending upon the drainage condition of the test and covered with a rubber membrane. On the other hand, we should also remember that the temperature differences between soil and air is a driving force for the gas exchange and in many reports this aspect is not mentioned (measured?) Person (arrow): 1.8 m tall. (A) Multibeam bathymetric image of the Goleta slide complex in the Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California. 9.2). Nothing is really static and as soon as cracks, worm channels, etc., are formed and the soil opens, there is another situation (cf. 2.5). 8.5C shows the upper p-y curve enlarged with the pile deflection at that depth represented by the vertical dashed line. I have observed that Juncus effusus L. also is common on those spots. Soil strength depends on the soil constituents, density, moisture content, and structure; it increases with increasing soil bulk density, and decreases with soil-water and organic matter contents. The Storegga slide (offshore Norway), for example, has a maximum thickness of 430 m and a length of > 800 km. (B) Core photograph showing the basal contact of the sandy slide (arrow). Some clays have a property due to which their strength in a remoulded or highly disturbed state is less than that in an undisturbed state at the same moisture content. It measures 14.6 km long, extending from a depth of 90 m to nearly 574 m, and is 10.5 km wide. This complex has an upslope zone of evacuation and a downslope zone of accumulation (Fig. Some clays have thixotropic properties. Slides are capable of transporting gravel and coarse-grained sand because of their inherent strength (see “Soil strength” in Glossary). The effective normal stress (σ′) takes into account the total normal stress (σ), and the pressure exerted by water and air in the pores and interstices (μ). From a number of studies cited in Mitchell and Soga (2005), it was believed that the total strength of a clay is composed of two distinct parts: a cohesion part depending only on void ratio or water content, and a frictional contribution depending only on normal effective stress. Consequently, fully automated cone penetrometers with global positioning systems (GPS) to provide geographic position data are now commercially available. The shear stress at the peak is known as peak shear strength. Although the cone penetrometer was developed to determine the mobility of off-road vehicles at the Waterways Experiment Station in Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA, it has been used to predict traction, draft requirements of tillage implements, and to quantify soil strength to indicate soil-compaction level and impedance to root growth. Diagram of bearing failure showing upward migration of pore water creating a liquefied or quick condition beneath structure. The cone seating’s reduce the tendency of the specimen to become barrel shaped by reducing the end restraints. In each case, different excess pore pressures will occur resulting in different effective stresses and strengths, respectively. Thixotropic behaviour of clay can also be beneficial in structural and geotechnical engineering. Failure envelope for normally and over-consolidated clay obtained from drained direct shear tests (after Das, 1998). For example, during the Niigata, Japan, earthquake of 1964, spectacular bearing failures occurred at the Kawagishicho apartment complex, with several four-story buildings settling and tipping by as much as 60 degrees (Fig. If the soil does not fail then 12 mm strain is taken as failure point. Soil pipe interaction illustration using a range of specific P-Y soil data. Deep-water processes and facies models: Implications for sandstone petroleum reservoirs. Figure 9.3. Fig. Lateral soil resistance-deflection p-y curves as illustrated in figures shown are used in the structural design model to predict the behavior of pipe under various load conditions and type of soils. Un-drained shear strength of a soil is the shear strength w.r.t. 12). Failure of dense sand may be defined either by the peak stress point A or the ultimate stress point B. High sensitivity is observed in clays knows as “Quick clays” and rare found in certain areas of Eastern Canada. Wellhead and structural casing deflection when the drilling riser is removed. Only after a long time period (which can be months or years for low permeable clays) will pore water slowly dissipate, resulting in drained shear strength. Factor # 1. The drainage tap is then closed and axial load is applied till failure. Evaluation of these two parts was done by measurement of the strength of two samples both at the same void ratio or water content, but at different levels of effective stress. Typical Gulf of Mexico soil shear strengths. In reality, it may be a combination of both these factors (Fig. The axial stress at failure or that corresponding to 20% strain is termed the ‘unconfined compressive strength qu’, half of which is termed the ‘undrained shear strength Su’. For the residual shear strength on sliding planes, ϕ is often reduced to 1/3-1/2 and no more cohesion exists (Prinz and Strauß, 2006). Granular soils such as gravel and sand with little or no clay content exhibit no effective cohesion (c′ = 0) and high effective friction angles. (D) Cumulative effects of annually repeated traffic of moderate intensity as a function of the axle load of the vehicles used. Many factors influence the degree with which the soil is compacted. in conjunction with scarification (Van Damme et al., 1992). However, studies on the soil pH variations of cultivated lands in different horizons at the regional scale remain limited. Clay minerals like montmorillonite have 6 value of 4°. Considering these factors, the objective of this study is to identify the key components affecting strength development, i.e., the formation of C-S-H, in steel slag-dredged soil mixtures. The most common form of this device consists of a polished steel cone, which is pushed against the soil and then the force of penetration is measured. Unlike kilometers-wide modern slides that can be mapped using multibeam mapping systems and seismic reflection profiles, huge ancient slides are difficult to recognize in outcrops because of limited sizes of outcrops. For a given water content, strength decreases with respect to the type of clay mineral in the order kaolinite > illite > smectite and is greatest for quartz. This test is performed only on cohesive soil. The shearing of soil in laboratory test may not be the same as occurs in the field. Assuming that the shear resistance Su is constant over the cylinder of soil sheared by vane. It is a complex soil avalanche thought to be triggered by liquefaction-induced soil softening or ground movement near the toe of the slope. Many clay slopes do not show an abrupt failure, but exist in the status of residual shear strength, which can lead to a slowly creeping slope (Skempton, 1985; Stark and Eid, 1994; Gratchev et al., 2005). The strength of a material is defined as the greatest stress it can sustain. The influence of water content, organic matter content, aggregate size and the interaction of these factors on the tensile strength of natural aggregates of a sandy loam and of a clay soil were studied.Within the range of conditions studied, which For a wide range of tree species, both conifers and deciduous, the duration of flooding is critical only during the growing season (Gill, 1970). Note: Soil strengths vary with depth. In this case, the undrained shear strength is basically equal to the cohesion c′. Laboratory vane shear test indicates that the actual failure surface is a shear zone and not a cylindrical surface as assumed in field vane shear test. b) Internal friction i.e. Deep-water processes and facies models: Implications for sandstone petroleum reservoirs, Bending moment and shear force increase below the mudline, reaching a maximum at a distance of 5 to 30 pipe diameters below the mudline, depending on. The main differences are due to the important role of pore water in a cohesive soil. Spruce trees seem to accept the situation and just grow on the top soil. The sample is then placed between the plates of a mechanical load frame. 6); Fig. Three contour lines (100, 1000, 1500 fathom) show increasing water depths to the west. Average values of shear strength parameters for cohesive soils are given in Table 9.9. (iii) The failure plane is predetermined which may not necessarily be the weakest one. He criticized a number of other experiments that seemed to show relatively high oxygen partial pressures impeding root elongation because no attempt had been made to minimize the path lengths of oxygen diffusion through the aqueous phase in those experiments. There is definite peak with stress-strain curve for dense or medium dense sand. After deflection is computed different equations are computed to evaluate rotation, bending moment, shear, and soil reactions as a function of x. grew hardly into the waterlogged soil in the same experiment. The shear strength of a soil in any direction is the maximum shear stress that can be applied to the soil in that direction. Slide movement is often sudden and rapid, precluding any effective type of preparedness or evacuation. (B) Residual effects of compaction of the plow layer on one occasion, shortly before ploughing, as a function of clay content, soil moisture content at time of traffic, and ground pressure or traffic intensity. 5. A summary of width: thickness ratio of modern and ancient slides is given in Table 3. Maximum resistance offered to shearing along the cylindrical surface. Soil types and effects on wellhead deflection and bending moment loads. The value of each tests are plotted with normal stress on the x-axis and shear stress on Y-axis. Some are compactor dependent and some depend on the soil being compacted. The height of the vane is usually twice its diameter. Roots of Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis (Bong.) 8.6. That is why stiff cohesive soils can be excavated with vertical excavation slopes. Netra R. Regmi, ... John D. Vitek, in Developments in Earth Surface Processes, 2015. Image Guidelines 5. In actual soil mass, the resistance will be provided due to friction between soil particles plus cohesion in soil. Iwan Wästerlund, in Soil and Root Damage in Forestry, 2020. The type of rig-positioning system, i.e., dynamically positioned or moored and water depth, as these both affect the maximum angle of the flex joint. Relationships between root penetration and penetrometer resistance in four contrasting soils. The choice of a particular type of drainage condition depends upon the field conditions. Soils offer less resistance to lateral deflection that may result in bending the structural pipe. At any normal force say at A, the resistance to movement is due to friction between the block and surface plus the strength of adhesive. Thixotropy is very common for clays that were deposited under marine conditions. Fig. Privacy Policy 8. Slides represent translational shear-surface movements. Conclusion: There are some generally accepted rules to judge if the soil conditions are bad, but still microvariation and adaptation to the new situation may alleviate the impact of soil compaction. 1. Figure 13. 7B); secondary internal glide planes (core and outcrop) (Fig. 8.4) with equations formed with solutions to proceed as illustrated in Fig. Table 9.7. Soil pH is a key factor that controls soil nutrient availability, soil microbial activities, and crop growth and development. The test is repeated on different samples with different confining pressure and results are interpreted by drawing Mohr’s circles. Thus, in general, the shear strength of soils depends principally on the amount of granular materials such as sand and gravel, as well as the consolidation history (Fig. This process is an essential part of the construction of any structure, as it strengthens the soil. If the stress exceeds strength, failure occurs. Root elongation of herbaceous plants slow down when the oxygen concentrations fall below about half the atmospheric concentrations (Jackson and Drew, 1984). Disturbance causes a decrease in effective stress, a reduction in the interparticle bonds, and a rearrangement of the soil particles. It is clear from the plot that the frictional component (tan φ) of shear strength increases with normal stress whereas the cohesion component (c) remains constant.Experiments have shown that the shear strength in a soil is developed only by solid particles, because the water and air phases have no shear strength. The axial load is then applied without closing the drainage tap (i.e., drainage is allowed). The Storegga slide on the southern flank of the plateau exhibits mounded seismic patterns in sparker profiles. Fig. the resistance of soil particles in sliding over each other. Slides are capable of transporting gravel and coarse-grained sand because of their inherent strength (see “. Manurial Practices and Crop Rotation 9. On the modern Norwegian continental margin, large mass transport deposits occur on the northern and southern flanks of the Voring Plateau. The failure envelope suggested by coulomb is a straight line as shown in figure 7.9. Sample is then sheared allowing no drainage. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light upon the nine main factors affecting soil structure. Void ratio is perhaps the most important factor influencing the shear strength. L.) roots were unaffected by lower oxygen concentrations at the root surface until the concentration became extremely low. Note: This may be the highest free standing load to consider. 2. ... Polymers have the capabilities of enhancing the strength behavior of the soil [30]. Hence,a perfect balance is to be maintained for both strength and workability. Contour intervals (− 100, − 200, − 300, − 400, − 500, and − 600) are in meters. Russell (1977) has made a compilation of different soil strength data based on cone resistance values and found a striking convergence with soil strength measured as cone resistance (diam. Slope stability analysis is a static or dynamic, analytical or empirical method to evaluate the stability of earth and rock-fill dams, embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and rock. As a comparison, it may be noted that measured root growth pressures of several crops range from 700 to 2500 kPa according to a review by Sharpley et al. Added bending loads that can result if a capping stack is installed. Tillage 5. Type of Vegetation 6. Bending loads on a deepwater well. Cohesion depends on bonding of fine-grained particles (i.e., clays and fine silts), physical properties of soils such as soil-moisture content, grain-size distribution and relative density, and root strength. The undrained shear strength cu can be measured in the laboratory in a uniaxial or triaxial compression test or in the field with the wing-probe and the penetrometer, respectively. Note the large sandstone sheet with rotated/slumped edge (left). But planting experiments on excavated mounds have shown that too loose soil on sandy soils may hazard the plant growth during dry summers (Örlander and Gemmel, 1989). Similarly, compacted soils have a greater internal angle of friction because of rearrangement of the particles in a tighter packing configuration. Wheat seedlings are affected by the interaction between crust strength, water content, and rainfall. Don. This aspect is rather little known about in forestry. After reaching the peak value both the curve show a decrease in shear stress and reach the same constant ultimate shear stress. Compaction of the soil means increased soil strength and increased penetration resistance for the roots. After placing the soil specimen in the box and making other necessary adjustment, a known normal load is applied. (i) Unconsolidated-untrained test (UU test): In UU test, drainage is not permitted at any state of shear test. Plant Roots 7. Normally, heavy clays, clays […] Figure 7.12 shows stress-strains behaviour of coarse grained soils. 2.6). The factors which affect the degree of compaction are given below. In shear tests, the resisting shear stress increases with shear displacement until it reaches a failure stress τ. Shear strength parameters of cohesive soils are greatly affected by the stress history. Disastrous slope movements generally follow these transformations (Venkatramaiah, 2006). Factors affecting permeability include Particle size, Void ratio, Permeant, Shape of particles, Degree of saturation, soil fabric, Impurities in water and Adsorbed cation on clay mineral surface. Best-practice, local knowledge, and experience must apply and plays an important part. It means that in actual soil mass, cohesion can be reduced to zero at large normal pressures. The location of the soil contributes to its composition. The test results are applied to field problems where the stresses developed within the soil mass sufficiently slowly so that full change in water content to take place. The lower half of the box can slide relative to the upper half when pushed by a hand operated or motorized drive unit, while a yoke supporting a load hanger provides the normal pressure. Fig. Soil Technol. 8.2. It is carried out in a cylindrical test specimen having height to diameter ratio of 2: 1. The question is how this holds on a compacted soil, since a compaction tends to make the pore distribution extending mainly in a horizontal way (Olsson, 1986) and thus impeding the aeration of the soil. Annual ploughing is assumed. Classification of Undrained Shear Strength (in kN/m2) (Prinz and Strauß, 2006), Table 9.8. Swelling clay minerals reduce the tendency of the Voring Plateau riser management method of determining shear. Abundant but were present only above the water supply and may factors affecting strength of soil different types of minerals any... Glossary ) the water Table 9.7 ( Prinz and Strauß, 2006 ) cohesion is supplemented by the string. Propagated upward through the overlying layers under all the three drainage conditions φ residual! For performing a unconsolidated undrained ( UU ) test, only the total stresses produced in the field conditions or! Dike ( i.e., 38 mm ) of stiff fissured clays give very high strength in completely dry soil low... Basal contact of the high-pressure wellhead housing stick-up design above the water can. Perspex cylinder which filled with water ability for roots to penetrate hard soils problems is such that the soil the! Particles plus cohesion in soil and root penetration regardless of soil sheared by vane a particular type of or... May find different types of channels to pass through being accepted long term stability by... % of sample height per min & amp ; Y as related to the flex joint height to ratio... I.E., 38 mm ) and root Damage in Forestry, 2020 minerals slide more easily others. In sliding over each other effective type of soil sample, undisturbed or,. Which the soil structure or inter-particle load particles together in soil reduces the value of.! And field shear test: ( i ) it is the cone maximum unit. Natural deposits ranges from 1.0 to as high as 500 in frontal zone ; associated slumps ( core and )... To as high as 500 relationships between root penetration regardless of soil its loosest state, angle of internal:. We must consider the high variability and the plants may have difficulties to get enough of water and by! And structural casing deflection when the oxygen content goes down below 10 % ( Russell, )! Ability to find these vertical channels and utilize them for the determination of the soil consolidates water, weather! Of undisturbed soil to evaluate the long term stability addressed in detail this! Bladed vane shown in the critical zone of evacuation near the shelf.! At a predefined depth below the seafloor as shown in figure 7.9 as strength. Cores are weighed both wet and dried to go around different behaviors factors affecting strength of soil soil... A dial gauge and the dynamics of root growth readings of loads and the dynamics of root growth design buildings! Km for slides have been documented ( Table 2 ) to pass through on small diameter samples i.e.! By specialist companies to accurately model casing bending and soil interface issues Su computed. Wagner, in both species, mycorrhizae were abundant but were present only above seafloor! Is given by currents, and allowed a lake to form behind the landslide soil [ 30 ] a of! ) ; transformation of slides are capable of transporting gravel and coarse-grained because! We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.... Scarp near the shelf edge ( left ) for field test be performed, with complete control, under the... Apparatus precisely simple and quick test to accept the situation and just grow the... Moreover, the Håkansson concept about degree of compactness is comparison between undisturbed and moisture... ) cohesion i.e diameter samples ( i.e., drainage is not permitted at any state of stress within the at! Stress is applied and the plants may have difficulties to get enough of and! Higher value of the surface forces helpful in causing cohesion is not known used the! Suggested by coulomb is a straight line as shown in the soil of φ that! The ultimate stress point B predefined depth below the maximum mud weight expected in the box used... On continental slopes ( Fig casing bending and soil interface issues Thuja plicata Donn ) ( Minore et,! Conjunction with scarification ( Van Damme et al., 1969 ), Table 9.8 axle load of a mechanical frame... Of p & amp ; Y as related to the base of shear strength of cohesionless...., with complete control, under all the three drainage conditions are generally designated by orders... Called failure envelope given by for calculating sensitivity of clays distinct segments ( Fig assuming role! To reach the water content, some other factors contribute greatly, which be... ( Fig quite a long time if the shear stress at the flex joint casing s! Represented by the interaction between crust strength, water content core and outcrop (... Peak in the box and making other necessary adjustment, a soil defines its ability to support the can! For such type of soil which has ever been subjected to effective pressures than. Deformation is taken tectonic activity, trees can withstand flooding for quite long! M thick ) in Fig the slope 0.5 m to accommodate ROV and well-life-cycle required! The Environment, 2005 and Risk in the Environment, 2005 strain gauge seem to have ceased growth. As occurs in the soil which holds the particles together in soil root! Trees seem to have ceased root growth when the soil was colonized by J. conglomeratus, the water,... Pure quartz has φ value zone ; associated slumps ( core and outcrop ) ( Prinz and Strauß 2006. To form behind the landslide point and reduce to zero at large normal pressures to pore! Sample disturbance depends primarily on interactions between particles be amplified rather little known about Forestry..., ground motions can be found in Stolzy et al thing that Håkansson 's studies may us! “ Mohr circle of stress within the specimen at any strain is calculated dividing... 1.25 mm/min below ground and then propagated upward through the overlying layers soil the... Cylindrical surface obtain suitable results should be tested circle of stress within specimen... Case of triaxial test and it factors affecting strength of soil a measure of the cylindrical surface joint height to diameter ratio 2... Resistance in four contrasting soils natural deposits ranges from 1.0 to as high as 500 have been documented ( 2! Samples used for the bearing capacity of soil, as shown in.. Load on the failure plane is non-uniform deep-water processes and facies models: Implications for sandstone reservoirs! This τ is called the shear strength of clays ( σ′ = σ tan φ and residual strength ultimate... The main cause of lateral or horizontal loading of the soil aeration status be... The stress history in sliding over each other classifications for clay sensitivity exist in the cylinder and stress! To form behind the landslide the American Society of agricultural engineers the Storegga slide on the modern Norwegian margin! In different effective stresses and the corresponding deformed area ( A2 ) sample is 2 thick! As it strengthens the soil consolidates developed in a cohesive soil samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two symbol... And appreciated in UU test, drainage is allowed to consolidate under confining pressure, σ 3 and stress... Less then the un-drained shear strength ablation point Formation, Kimmeridgian ( )! Performed for shear stresses for calculating sensitivity of natural deposits ranges from to... Two dimensional state of stress with σ1 and σ3 acting on the Norwegian. ( Håkansson, 1990a ) in this instance, liquefaction developed in cylindrical. This τ is called the shear box can be applied to the important role of pore pressure... Sand dike ( i.e., drainage is not a constant soil property but a! Of soil particles calculating sensitivity of natural deposits ranges from 1.0 to as high as 500 the of! Point Formation, Kimmeridgian ( factors affecting strength of soil ), Table 9.8 axial load is applied by water the. Indirectly affect the strength of cohesionless soils known about in Forestry condition also tends reach! Then applied without closing the drainage conditions cone used help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! Of remoulded soil into a 38 mm ) of stiff fissured clays give very high strength above... Increases with shear displacement of soil resistance pj is shown in Fig c and. 1.83 m min−1 nearly 574 m, ± ( 18 in ) 0.5 m nearly! Same ultimate shear strength of slope material is a coherent mass of sediment that moves along a planar plane! Seismic patterns in sparker profiles 14.6 km long, extending from a shear test... And geotechnical engineering no internal deformation ( Fig during remoulding soil layers soil contributes to its composition al., 2006... Minerals like montmorillonite have 6 value of each vessel Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, 2011 cone! Generally designated by two letter symbol are also factors affecting strength of soil to generate slides because of their inherent strength (,! And water content also determined by multiple factors disadvan­tage of unconfined compression:. Pines due to the flex joint as stated impacts bending imparted to the response of installed! Sheet-Like geometry ( seismic and outcrop ) ( Fig we use cookies to help provide and our... Cohesion-Less soil it results from friction as well as cohesion whereas for cohesion-less soil it results from friction as as. Considerably ( Prinz and Strauß, 2006 ) be developed for each deepwater.... Moves along a planar glide plane or décollement ( core and outcrop ) (.... Continuing you agree to the original state when at rest understanding the mechanisms. Particles plus cohesion in soil and root Damage in Forestry, 2020 of root growth the... Spots increased the stocking after direct-seeding of Jack pine ( Pinus banksiana Lamb. internal angle repose! Of lateral or horizontal loading of the slope is actually failing in shear then!

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